Author(s): Reithmann C, Hahnefeld A, Remp T, Dorwarth U, Dugas M
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a structural heart disease characterized by fibrofatty degeneration of right ventricular myocardium and arrhythmias of right ventricular origin. The aim of this study was to characterize endocardial right ventricular activation by electroanatomic mapping as a guide for catheter ablation in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Electroanatomic mapping and entrainment procedures were performed in 5 patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Endocardial mapping during ventricular tachycardia demonstrated a focal activation pattern with radial spreading of activation from a site of earliest ventricular activation in all directions. Right ventricular activation time (127 +/- 34 ms) was markedly shorter than tachycardia cycle length (415 +/- 92 ms). The site of earliest ventricular activation was found in an aneurysmal outflow tract (n = 2), at the border of aneurysms near the tricuspid annulus (n = 2), and at the apex of the right ventricle (n = 1). Entrainment mapping criteria of these areas of earliest endocardial activity were consistent with exit sites of a reentrant circuit in an area of abnormal myocardium. Fractionated potentials were found 61 +/- 29 ms before the onset of the QRS complex at these sites. Catheter ablation rendered the "clinical" ventricular tachycardia noninducible in four patients but "nonclinical" faster ventricular tachycardias were inducible in three patients. During the follow-up of 7 +/- 3 months after ablation, the frequency of therapies in 4 patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator decreased from 49 +/- 61 episodes per month before ablation, to 0.3 +/- 0.5 episodes per month after ablation (P < 0.05). Electroanatomic mapping during ventricular tachycardia facilitates localization of exit sites in relation to aneurysms in diseased right ventricle and may guide catheter ablation in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.