Author(s): Kelly BT, Backus SI, Warren RF, Williams RJ
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Abstract BACKGROUND: The phases of the football throw need definition so that muscle activation patterns during the overhead football throw can be fully described. HYPOTHESIS: Electromyographic analysis of shoulder musculature can better define muscle activation patterns during the football throw. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive anatomic study. METHODS: Videos of 20 elite-level quarterbacks were reviewed to define phases of the overhead football throw; 14 recreational male athletes underwent electromyography and motion analysis testing. RESULTS: Four sequential phases of the football throw were consistently observed. Early cocking (49\% +/- 11\% of throw) was initiated at rear foot plant and continued to maximal shoulder abduction and internal rotation. Late cocking (20\% +/- 6\%) started at maximal shoulder abduction and internal rotation and ended with maximal shoulder external rotation. The acceleration phase (15\% +/- 4\%) began with maximal shoulder external rotation and ended with ball release. Follow-through (16\% +/- 5\%) was defined as the phase from ball release to maximal horizontal adduction (across the body). CONCLUSION: The four phases demonstrated little variation in motion analysis and electromyographic activation between subjects and were associated with muscle activation patterns consistent with upper extremity movements. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A clearer understanding of muscle activation patterns may help to explain patterns of muscle injury and improve rehabilitation protocols in football-throwing athletes.
This article was published in Am J Sports Med
and referenced in Journal of Sports Medicine & Doping Studies