Author(s): Roberts DM, Blackwell TH, Marx JA
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Abstract OBJECTIVE: To analyze medical care facilities and resources available for spectators attending football games in the current National Football League (NFL) stadiums. METHODS: A prospective, structured questionnaire regarding facilities, transportation, medications and equipment, personnel configuration, compensation, and communications was mailed to all 28 NFL organizations. Those falling to respond were interviewed by telephone using the identical questionnaire. Data were compiled using Lotus 1-2-3. RESULTS: Data were collected from all 28 NFL organizations. Because two teams use the same stadium, results were calculated for 27 facilities (n = 27). The number of stadium first aid rooms ranges from 1 to 7, with an average of 2.4 +/- 1.3 rooms per stadium (+/- 1 SD) and these vary in size from 120 to 2,000 square feet, with a mean of 434 +/- 377 square feet. Each room is equipped with an average of 3.3 +/- 2.9 stretchers (or tables), with telephones being present in 91\% and sinks in 88\% of all rooms. To provide contractual EMS coverage, stadiums use standard EMS system designs, including private (n = 19), fire department-based (n = 7), municipal (city/county) (n = 5), volunteer (n = 4), and hospital (n = 3). Nine stadiums employ more than one type of provider. All stadiums have a minimum of one ambulance dedicated on-site for spectators, with a range of 1 to 7, and a mean of 2.9 +/- 1.4. Golf carts are used for intrafacility patient transportation in 17 stadiums, with a range of 1 to 6, and a mean of 2.5 +/- 1.3. Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) medications and equipment are present in all NFL stadiums and are provided by the private EMS company (n = 16), stadium (n = 10), fire EMS (n = 7), hospitals (n = 4), municipal EMS (n = 2), and the local NFL organization (n = 1). Several facilities have more than one provider of ACLS medications and equipment. The majority of stadiums dispense acetaminophen (n = 25) and aspirin (n = 24). Some dispense antacids (n = 7) and antihistamines (n = 6). The average stadium staffs 8 EMT-Bs, 7 EMT-Ps, 3 registered nurses, and 2 physicians. Nine stadiums pay a predesignated fee per game to an agency to provide emergency care to spectators. Medical personnel are compensated by an hourly rate (n = 15), a fixed rate per event (n = 9), overtime wages (n = 3), or volunteerism (n = 4). Four NFL organizations pay their medical personnel by more than one type of compensation. Courtesy seats are provided to physicians and nurses in 1 stadium and to just physicians in 8 stadiums, with a range of 2 to 6 and a mean of 3.3 +/- 1.3. All stadiums use two-way radios for the communication and coordination of medical care in the stadium. Additionally, 20 use fixed telephones in the first aid rooms, 3 use cellular telephones, and 2 incorporate a pager system to dispatch personnel within the stadium. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of system designs, facilities, and personnel configurations are used to provide emergency medical care for spectators attending NFL games. This information may be useful for assisting those individuals responsible for organizing stadium medical coverage.
This article was published in Prehosp Emerg Care
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