alexa Emerging immune checkpoints for cancer therapy.
Oncology

Oncology

Journal of Orthopedic Oncology

Author(s): Li X, , , Hu W, ,

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors has emerged as promising treatment modality for cancer based on the success of anti-CTLA-4 and -PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies. LAG-3 and TIM-3 are two new immune checkpoints. The aim of this work is to review the role and application of LAG-3 and TIM-3 for cancer immunotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Literatures were searched and collected in Medline/PubMed. RESULTS: LAG-3 is presented as a CD4 homolog type I transmembrane protein which binds MHC class II molecules. LAG-3 negatively regulates T cell proliferation, homeostasis and function. IMP321 is formed of an extracellular portion of human LAG-3 fused to the Fc fraction of human IgG1 and has shown increased T cell responses and tolerability in phase I studies on advanced renal cell cancer. When combined with paclitaxel, IMP321 has exerted immune enhancement and tumor inhibition with no significant IMP321-related adverse events. TIM-3 belongs to the TIM family and mainly negatively regulates Th1 immunity. The TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway contributes to the suppressive tumor microenvironment. TIM-3 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. Both LAG-3 and TIM-3 are coexpressed with other immune checkpoints. The application of LAG-3 or TIM-3 does play an important role in anti-tumor responses, and maybe better when combing with anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/L1 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: These two immune checkpoints play crucial roles in cancer development and may be used in future clinical practice of cancer therapy. This article was published in Acta Oncol and referenced in Journal of Orthopedic Oncology

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