Author(s): Alvarez RH, Valero V, Hortobagyi GN
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Abstract Increased understanding of the molecular events involved in cancer development has led to the identification of a large number of novel targets and, in parallel, to the development of multiple approaches to anticancer therapy. Targeted therapy focuses on specific molecules in the malignant cell signal transduction machinery, including crucial molecules involved in cell invasion, metastasis, apoptosis, cell-cycle control, and tumor-related angiogenesis. In breast cancer, two new targeted agents have recently been approved: lapatinib, directed against the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2); and bevacizumab, directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Multiple other targeted agents are under evaluation in clinical trials, including inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), dual EGFR and HER2 inhibitors, other VEGF or VEGF-receptor inhibitors, and agents that alter crucial signaling pathways, such as RAS/MEK/ERK; phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/ mammalian target of rapamycin; insulin-like growth factor/insulin-like growth factor receptor; poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; and others. In this review, we present the most promising studies of these new targeted therapies and novel combinations of targeted therapies with traditional cytotoxic agents.
This article was published in J Clin Oncol
and referenced in Journal of Cytology & Histology