alexa Endocrine and molecular responses to surgical stress.


Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering

Author(s): Udelsman R, Holbrook NJ

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Successful adaptation to stress is a prerequisite for the survival of all organisms living in an environment in which noxious stimuli are constantly present. Higher organisms, including human beings, have developed complex mechanisms to tolerate the myriad of insults that occur to cellular constituents and organ systems after trauma with its resultant blood loss and tissue injury. Surgical stress can be conceptualized in this context, and it is therefore not surprising that human beings have developed an array of integrated stress-response axes that work in concert to return the host to a sustainable homeostatic plateau. The most important aspects of these axes are depicted in Figure 24. Surgical stress activates the higher cortical center of the brain and the spinal and baroreceptor reflexes that stimulate the hypothalamus to secrete CRH. CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the pituitary gland, which causes the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. Simultaneously, in a parallel fashion, surgical stress activates the sympathetic system to release catecholamines. Glucocorticoids and catecholamines are the major effectors of stress adaptation and interact at multiple levels in a synergistic fashion. They bind to specific receptors that are present in virtually every organ, although the number and affinity of a given tissue's receptor vary dramatically for individual ligands. Receptor occupancy results in short-term and long-term effects that ultimately improve the host's prospects of tolerating the stressful event. The short-term effects result in rapid actions, such as cardiovascular and metabolic responses that benefit the host in a "fight or flight" reaction. The long-term effects generally occur through alterations in gene transcription that prepare the host for, or adapt the host to, repetitive or chronic stress. Changes in the phosphorylation state of intracellular proteins are a common mode of action for both the short-term and long-term responses. These stress-responsive proteins have an enormous functional capacity: they alter enzymatic pathways, modulate hormone levels, and act as transcription factors to modify the expression of stress-responsive genes. During the last decade considerable progress has been made in explaining the complex signal transduction pathways mediating these responses. The importance of the HSPs in the host response to acute stress and their intimate association with activation of the HPA axis and sympathetic nervous system have recently been appreciated. The HSPs are likely to be induced early during organ rejection or ischemia and thus serve as diagnostic indicators.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
This article was published in Curr Probl Surg and referenced in Journal of Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals


1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version