Author(s): N H BIRKEBK, L PATEL, N B WRIGHT, J R GRIGG, S SINHA, C M HALL, D A PRICE, I C LLOYD, P E CLAYTON
We here: 1) describe the phenotypic spectrum, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of the pituitary stalk and anterior and posterior pituitary [H-P (hypothalamic-pituitary) axis], in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) with or without an abnormal septum pellucidum (SP); and 2) define endocrine dysfunction according to the MRI findings. Medical records of 55 children with ONH who had been assessed by ophthalmology and endocrine services were reviewed. All had MRI of the brain and H-P axis. Forty-nine percent of the ONH patients had an abnormal SP on MRI, and 64% had a H-P axis abnormality. Twenty-seven patients (49%) had endocrine dysfunction, and 23 of these had H-P axis abnormality. The frequency of endocrinopathy was higher in patients with an abnormal SP (56%) than a normal SP (39%). Patients were divided into four groups based on SP and H-P axis appearance: 1) both normal; 2) abnormal SP and normal H-P axis; 3) normal SP and abnormal H-P axis; and 4) both abnormal. The frequency of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency was highest (56%) in group 4, lower (35%) in group 3, and even lower (22%) in group 2. Precocious puberty was most common in group 2. None of the patients in group 1 had endocrine dysfunction. Thus, SP and H-P axis appearances on MRI can be used to predict the likely spectrum of endocrinopathy.