alexa Endogenous morphine and nitric oxide coupled regulation of mitochondrial processes.
Neurology

Neurology

Autism-Open Access

Author(s): Kream RM, Stefano GB

Abstract Share this page

Abstract The widespread expression of morphine by plants, invertebrate and vertebrate cells/organ systems strongly indicates a high level of evolutionary conservation of morphine and related morphinan alkaloids as essential chemical factors required for normal growth and development. The prototype catecholamine dopamine (DA) serves as an essential chemical intermediate in morphine biosynthesis both in plants and animals. We surmise primordial, multi-potential cell types, before the emergence of specialized plant and animal cells/organ systems, required selective mechanisms to limit their responsiveness to environmental noise. Accordingly, cellular systems that emerged with the potential for recruitment of the free radical gas nitric oxide (NO) as a multi-faceted autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule were provided with extremely positive evolutionary advantages. Endogenous "morphinergic" in concert with NO-coupled signaling systems have evolved as autocrine/paracrine regulators of metabolic homeostasis, energy metabolism, mitochondrial respiration and energy production. Basic physiological processes involving "morphinergic"/NO-coupled regulation of mitochondrial function, with special emphasis on the cardiovascular system, are critical to all organismic survival. Critical to this concept may be the phenomenon of mitochondrial enslavement in eukaryotic evolution via morphine.
This article was published in Med Sci Monit and referenced in Autism-Open Access

Recommended Conferences

  • International Conference on Social Sciences & Interdisciplinary Studies
    August 07-17 London, UK
  • 3rd International Conference on Autism
    Aug 21-22, 2017 Los Angeles, USA
  • 3rd International Conference on Epilepsy and Treatment
    September 01-17 Brussels, Belgium

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords