alexa Endoscopic, endonasal variability in the anatomy of the internal carotid artery.
Psychiatry

Psychiatry

Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

Author(s): Cebula H, Kurbanov A, Zimmer LA, Poczos P, Leach JL,

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Abstract BACKGROUND: Classic three-dimensional schemas of the internal carotid artery (ICA) for transcranial approaches do not necessarily apply to two-dimensional endoscopic views. Modifying an existing ICA segment classification, we define endoscopic orientation for the lacerum (C3) to clinoid (C5) segments through an endonasal approach. METHODS: In 20 cadaveric heads, we classified endoscopic appearance based on shape and angulation of C3 to C5 segments. Distances were measured between both arteries, and between the ICA and pituitary gland. RESULTS: We identified 4 common ICA patterns: types I through III matched side-to-side, whereas type IV was asymmetric. In 80\% of specimens, the pituitary gland had direct contact with the ICA. In 20\% of specimens, a space existed between the pituitary gland and the cavernous segment. Access to the posterior aspect of the cavernous sinus medial to the cavernous segment was possible without retraction of the artery or pituitary gland. Spaces between the lacerum and cavernous segments were trapezoid (80\%) and hourglass (20\%). CONCLUSIONS: Distinguishing which ICA type courses between the lacerum and clinoid segments can help clarify the relationships between the artery and its surrounding structures during endoscopic approaches. Adapting the classic terminology of ICA segments provided consistency of endoscopic relevance, defined potential endoscopic corridors, and highlighted the critical step of arterial contact. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. This article was published in World Neurosurg and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy

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