alexa Endothelin-2, the forgotten isoform: emerging role in the cardiovascular system, ovarian development, immunology and cancer.
Cardiology

Cardiology

Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

Author(s): Ling L, Maguire JJ, Davenport AP

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Abstract Endothelin-2 [ET-2; also known as vasoactive intestinal contractor (VIC), in rodents] differs from endothelin-1 (ET-1) by only two amino acids, and unlike the third isoform, endothelin-3 (ET-3), it has the same affinity as ET-1 for both ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. It is often assumed that ET-2 would mimic the actions of the more abundant ET-1 and current pharmacological interventions used to inhibit the ET system would also block the actions of ET-2. These assumptions have focused research on ET-1 with ET-2 studied in much less detail. Recent research suggests that our understanding of the ET family requires re-evaluation. Although ET-2 is very similar in structure as well as pharmacology to ET-1, and may co-exist in the same tissue compartments, there is converging evidence for an important and distinct ET-2 pathway. Specifically is has been demonstrated that ET-2 has a key role in ovarian physiology, with ET-2-mediated contraction proposed as a final signal facilitating ovulation. Furthermore, ET-2 may also have a pathophysiological role in heart failure, immunology and cancer. Comparison of ET-2 versus ET-1 mRNA expression suggests this may be accomplished at the level of gene expression but differences may also exist in peptide synthesis by enzymes such as endothelin converting enzymes (ECEs) and chymase, which may allow the two pathways to be distinguished pharmacologically and become separate drug targets. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Endothelin. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2013.168.issue-1. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.
This article was published in Br J Pharmacol and referenced in Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

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