Author(s): Chansu Yu, Ben Lee, Hee Yong Youn
Although establishing correct and efficient routes is an important design issue in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a more challenging goal is to provide energy efficient routes because mobile nodes’ operation time is the most critical limiting factor. This article surveys and classifies the energy-aware routing protocols proposed for MANETs. They minimize either the active communication energy required to transmit or receive packets or the inactive energy consumed when a mobile node stays idle but listens to the wireless medium for any possible communication requests from other nodes. Transmission power control approach and load distribution approach belong to the former category, and sleep/power-down mode approach belongs to the latter category. While it is not clear whether any particular algorithm or a class of algorithms is the best for all scenarios, each protocol has definite advantages/disadvantages and is well suited for certain situations. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the research efforts in combining the existing solutions to offer a more energy efficient routing mechanism.