alexa Energy requirements during pregnancy based on total energy expenditure and energy deposition.
Toxicology

Toxicology

Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Author(s): Butte NF, Wong WW, Treuth MS, Ellis KJ, OBrian Smith E

Abstract Share this page

BACKGROUND: Energy requirements during pregnancy remain controversial because of uncertainties regarding maternal fat deposition and reductions in physical activity. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to estimate the energy requirements of healthy underweight, normal-weight, and overweight pregnant women and to explore energetic adaptations to pregnancy. DESIGN: The energy requirements of 63 women [17 with a low body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), 34 with a normal BMI, and 12 with a high BMI] were estimated at 0, 9, 22, and 36 wk of pregnancy and at 27 wk postpartum. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured by calorimetry, total energy expenditure (TEE) by doubly labeled water, and activity energy expenditure (AEE) as TEE - BMR. Energy deposition was calculated from changes in body protein and fat. Energy requirements equaled the sum of TEE and energy deposition. RESULTS: BMR increased gradually throughout pregnancy at a mean (+/-SD) rate of 10.7 +/- 5.4 kcal/gestational week, whereas TEE increased by 5.2 +/- 12.8 kcal/gestational week, which indicated a slight decrease in AEE. Energy costs of pregnancy depended on BMI group. Although total protein deposition did not differ significantly by BMI group (mean for the 3 groups: 611 g protein), FM deposition did (5.3, 4.6, and 8.4 kg FM in the low-, normal-, and high-BMI groups; P = 0.02). Thus, energy costs differed significantly by BMI group (P = 0.02). In the normal-BMI group, energy requirements increased negligibly in the first trimester, by 350 kcal/d in the second trimester, and by 500 kcal/d in the third trimester. CONCLUSION: Extra energy intake is required by healthy pregnant women to support adequate gestational weight gain and increases in BMR, which are not totally offset by reductions in AEE.

  • To read the full article Visit
  • Open Access
This article was published in Am J Clin Nutr. and referenced in Journal of Clinical Toxicology

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Relevant Topics

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords