Author(s): Kettiger H, Schipanski A, Wick P, Huwyler J
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Abstract Improved understanding of interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is needed to develop safety standards and to design new generations of nanomaterials. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of cellular uptake of engineered nanoparticles, their intracellular fate, and their distribution within an organism. We have reviewed the available literature on the uptake and disposition of engineered nanoparticles. Special emphasis was placed on the analysis of experimental systems and their limitations with respect to their usefulness to predict the in vivo situation. The available literature confirms the need to study particle characteristics in an environment that simulates the situation encountered in biological systems. Phenomena such as protein binding and opsonization are of prime importance since they may have a strong impact on cellular internalization, biodistribution, and immunogenicity of nanoparticles in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation in the whole organism remains a challenge. However, improved understanding of physicochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles and their influence on biological systems facilitates the design of nanomaterials that are safe, well tolerated, and suitable for diagnostic or therapeutic use in humans.
This article was published in Int J Nanomedicine
and referenced in Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology