alexa Enhanced killing of intracellular multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by compounds that affect the activity of efflux pumps.
Microbiology

Microbiology

Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Author(s): Amaral L, Martins M, Viveiros M

Abstract Share this page

Abstract Whereas human neutrophils are effective and efficient killers of bacteria, macrophages such as those derived from monocytes are almost devoid of killing activity. Nevertheless, monocytes can be transformed into effective killers of mycobacteria or staphylococci when exposed to clinical concentrations of a phenothiazine or to inhibitors of efflux pumps (reserpine and verapamil), or to ouabain, an inhibitor of K(+) transport. Because the rates of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) continue to escalate globally, and because no new effective drug has been made available for almost 40 years, compounds that enhance the killing activity of monocytes against MDR-TB are obviously needed. This review covers the specific characteristics of MDR-TB, identifies a variety of agents that address these characteristics and therefore have potential for managing MDR-TB. Because the mechanism by which these agents enhance the killing of intracellular bacteria is important for the intelligent design of new anti-tubercular agents, the review correlates the mechanisms by which these agents manifest their effects. Lastly, a model is presented which describes the mechanisms by which distinct efflux pumps of the phagosome-lysosome complex are inhibited by agents that are known to inhibit K(+) flux. The model also predicts the existence of a K(+) activated exchange (pump) that is probably located in the membrane that delineates the lysosome. This putative pump, which is immune to inhibitors of K+ flux, is identified as being the cause for the acidification of the lysosome thereby activating its hydrolytic enzymes. Because the non-killer macrophage can be transformed into an effective killer by a variety of compounds that inhibit K(+) transport, perhaps it would be wise to develop drugs that enhance the killing activity of these cells inasmuch as this approach would not be subject to any resistance, as is the eventual case for conventional antibiotics. This article was published in J Antimicrob Chemother and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords