Author(s): Graber ER, Dror I, Bercovich FC, Rosner M
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Abstract This study was designed to provide high-density data on spatial distribution of three herbicides with different physiochemical characteristics in a sludge-amended and non-amended control field over the course of an irrigation season. The field experiment was carried out on a sandy loam Hamra Red Mediterranean soil (Rhodoxeralf) at Bet Dagan, Israel. After a single 50 mm irrigation event, the mean centers of mass (COM) in the control field were at 15.6, 14.9, and 17 cm for bromacil, atrazine and terbuthylazine, respectively; in the sludge-amended field, mean COMs were at 28.8, 31.2, and 34.1 cm, respectively. After 500 mm of irrigation in the control field, the COM depth distribution of the three pesticides was inversely correlated with octanol-water (Kow) distribution coefficients and soil sorption coefficients (Koc), and positively correlated with aqueous solubilities. After 500 mm irrigation in the sludge-amended field, the mean terbuthylazine COM was at 19.8 cm versus 13.8 cm for the control field, demonstrating a sustained enhanced effect on terbuthylazine transport. Downward transport of atrazine was also enhanced by sludge amendment, albeit less than terbuthylazine. Bromacil was preferentially accumulated in the upper soil layers of the sludge-amended field as compared with the control field after 500 mm irrigation. The enhanced transport of all three pesticides in the sludge-amended field after a single irrigation event is attributed to development of preferential flow pathways around hydrophobic clods of sludge. Enhanced transport of terbuthylazine, and to a lesser extent, atrazine, throughout the irrigation season, is attributed to their transport as complexes with dissolved, colloidal and suspended organic matter derived from sludge degradation.
This article was published in Chemosphere
and referenced in International Journal of Waste Resources