Author(s): Li Y, Tweedie D, Mattson MP, Holloway HW, Greig NH
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Abstract Increasing evidence suggests that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), an incretin hormone of current interest in type 2 diabetes, is neuroprotective in both cell culture and animal models. To characterize the neuroprotective properties of GLP-1 and associated underlying mechanisms, we over-expressed the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells to generate a neuronal culture system featuring enhanced GLP-1R signaling. In GLP-1R over-expressing SH-SY5Y (SH-hGLP-1R#9) cells, GLP-1 and the long-acting agonist exendin-4 stimulated cell proliferation and increased cell viability by 2-fold at 24 h at physiologically relevant concentrations. This GLP-1R-dependent action was mediated via the protein kinase A and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways, with the MAPK pathway playing a minor role. GLP-1 and exendin-4 pretreatment dose-dependently protected SH-hGLP-1R#9 cells from hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))- and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death. This involved amelioration of elevated caspase 3 activity, down-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and up-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. In the presence of 6-hydroxydopamine, GLP-1's ability to lower caspase-3 activity was abolished with the phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY2940002, and partly reduced with the protein kinase A inhibitor, H89. Hence, GLP-1R mediated neurotrophic and anti-apoptotic actions co-contribute to the neuroprotective property of GLP-1 in neuronal cell cultures, and reinforce the potential therapeutic value of GLP-1R agonists in neurodegenerative disorders involving oxidative stress.
This article was published in J Neurochem
and referenced in Journal of Steroids & Hormonal Science