Author(s): Dopp E, Hartmann LM, Florea AM, Rettenmeier AW, Hirner AV
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Abstract The biochemical modification of the metals and metalloids mercury, tin, arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium via formation of volatile metal hydrides and alkylated species (volatile and involatile) performs a fundamental role in determining the environmental processing of these elements. In most instances, the formation of such species increases the environmental mobility of the element, and can result in bioaccumulation in lipophilic environments. While inorganic forms of most of these compounds are well characterized (e.g., arsenic, mercury) and some of them exhibit low toxicity (e.g., tin, bismuth), the more lipid-soluble organometals can be highly toxic. Methylmercury poisoning (e.g., Minamata disease) and tumor development in rats after exposure to dimethylarsinic acid or tributyltin oxide are just some examples. Data on the genotoxicity (and the neurotoxicity) as well as the mechanisms of cellular action of organometal(loid) compounds are, however, scarce. Many studies have shown that the production of such organometal(loid) species is possible and likely whenever anaerobic conditions (at least on a microscale) are combined with available metal(loid)s and methyl donors in the presence of suitable organisms. Such anaerobic conditions can exist within natural environments (e.g., wetlands, pond sediments) as well as within anthropogenic environmental systems (e.g., waste disposal sites and sewage treatments plants). Some methylation can also take place under aerobic conditions. This article gives an overview about the environmental distribution of organometal(loid) compounds and the potential hazardous effects on animal and human health. Genotoxic effects in vivo and in vitro in particular are discussed.
This article was published in Crit Rev Toxicol
and referenced in Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta