Author(s): Janosek J, Hilscherov K, Blha L, Holoubek I
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Abstract A group of intracellular nuclear receptors is a protein superfamily including arylhydrocarbon AhR, estrogen ER, androgen AR, thyroid TR and retinoid receptors RAR/RXR as well as molecules with unknown function known as orphan receptors. These proteins play an important role in a wide range of physiological as well as toxicological processes acting as transcription factors (ligand-dependent signalling macromolecules modulating expression of various genes in a positive or negative manner). A large number of environmental pollutants and other xenobiotics negatively affect signaling pathways, in which nuclear receptors are involved, and these modulations were related to important in vivo toxic effects such as immunosuppression, carcinogenesis, reproduction or developmental toxicity, and embryotoxicity. Presented review summarizes current knowledge on major nuclear receptors (AhR, ER, AR, RAR/RXR, TR) and their relationship to known in vivo toxic effects. Special attention is focused on priority organic environmental contaminants and experimental approaches for determination and studies of specific toxicity mechanisms.
This article was published in Toxicol In Vitro
and referenced in Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine