Author(s): Dalton DA, Russell SA, Hanus FJ, Pascoe GA, Evans HJ
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Abstract The critical problem of oxygen toxicity for nitrogen-fixing organisms may be related to damage caused by oxygen radicals and peroxides. An enzymatic mechanism is described for removal of peroxides in root nodules of soybean (Glycine max). The system utilizes ascorbate as an antioxidant and glutathione as a reductant to regenerate ascorbate. The enzymes involved are ascorbate peroxidase (ascorbate:hydrogen-peroxide oxidoreductase, EC 22.214.171.124), dehydroascorbate reductase (glutathione:dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase, EC 126.96.36.199), and glutathione reductase (NADPH:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase, EC 188.8.131.52). The reactions are essentially the same as those involving scavenging of H(2)O(2) in chloroplasts. Glutathione peroxidase (glutathione:hydrogenperoxide oxidoreductase, EC 184.108.40.206) was not detected. During the course of early nodule development, ascorbate peroxidase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities and total glutathione contents of nodule extracts increased strikingly and were positively correlated with acetylene reduction rates and nodule hemoglobin contents. The evidence indicates an important role of glutathione, ascorbate, ascorbate peroxidase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and glutathione reductase as components of a peroxide-scavenging mechanism in soybean root nodules.
This article was published in Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals