Author(s): Mao WM, Zheng WH, Ling ZQ
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Abstract In retrospective studies of esophageal cancer (EC), cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with a higher risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Barrett's esophagus is clearly recognized as a risk factor for EC, and dysplasia remains the only factor useful for identifying patients at increased risk, for the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma in clinical practice. Here, we review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of EC.
This article was published in Asian Pac J Cancer Prev
and referenced in Internal Medicine: Open Access