Author(s): Dao S, Abdillahi AM, Bougoudogo F, Toure K, Simbe C
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Abstract The district of Bamako is the political and economical capital city of Mali with 1,800,000 inhabitants. The goal of the present retrospective study was to determine the frequency of animal bites, human and animal rabies on the one hand and to determine the frequency and the nature of mad animals on the other hand from January 2000 to December 2003 (4 years). To achieve this goal, we have analysed registers and documents related to rabies in the department of prevention and fight against diseases, the central veterinary laboratory, and also at the lazaret clinic involved in caring for human rabies cases. Human rabies diagnosis has been brought up based upon the following clinical arguments: agitation and lethal hydrophobia within few days following bites by known or unknown animal. Agitation and aggressiveness followed by the animals' death within an observation period of 15 days maximum, allowed to evoke the diagnosis in animals. In Bamako an average of 1470 persons have been bitten each year. In 97.1\% of the cases, the mad animal was a dog; cats (1.6\%), donkeys, horses, cattle and rats (1.4\%) have also been identified on a total of 5870 cases of notified human bites by animals; 10 cases of notified human rabies have been recorded. The dog has been incriminated in 6 cases of human rabies out of 10, in the 4 other cases, it has not been possible to identify the mad animal. Among the 3924 mad animals in observation at the veterinary clinic, 187 have been clinically mad that is 4.8\%. The rabies virus has also been researched by direct immunofluorescence in 121 specimens of dead mad animals brain. This research has been positive in 119 cases among which 116 dogs, 2 sheep and 1 cow. Anyway the vaccinal status of people bitten by mad animals has not been clearly established. According to these results, we recommend the implementation of a national specific program to eradicate rabies in Bamako.
This article was published in Bull Soc Pathol Exot
and referenced in Journal of Tropical Diseases & Public Health