Author(s): Di Micco L, Mozzillo GR, Cianciaruso B
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Abstract Evidence has been accumulating in recent years that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common disease associated with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death in patients with CKD, and the risk of cardiovascular mortality is 10-30-fold higher in dialysis patients than in age-, gender- and race-matched controls. On the basis of this evidence it has been suggested that the cardiovascular risk profile of CKD patients is different from that of the general population, resulting from a complex and peculiar interaction of risk factors. In fact, traditional risk factors such as hypertension, aging, smoking, diabetes, and lipid disorders do not fully explain the high frequency of cardiovascular disease in CKD, so other factors must be involved in the high mortality rate in uremic patients. In this article we will provide an overview of the epidemiology of the cardiovascular risk factors in CKD. Among the non-traditional risk factors we have focused particularly on those related to mineral metabolism, which contribute the high rates of cardiovascular events observed in CKD.
This article was published in G Ital Nefrol
and referenced in Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics