alexa Epidemiology of community-acquired respiratory tract infections in adults. Incidence, etiology, and impact
Pulmonology

Pulmonology

Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine

Author(s): Garibaldi RA

Abstract Share this page

Abstract :

Upper respiratory tract infections are the most common types of infectious diseases among adults. It is estimated that each adult in the United States experiences two to four respiratory infections annually. The morbidity of these infections is measured by an estimated 75 million physician visits per year, almost 150 million days lost from work, and more than $10 billion in costs for medical care. Serotypes of the rhinoviruses account for 20 to 30 percent of episodes of the common cold. However, the specific causes of most upper respiratory infections are undefined. Pneumonia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality for nonhospitalized adults despite the widespread use of effective antimicrobial agents. There are no accurate figures on the number of episodes of pneumonia that occur each year in ambulatory patients. In younger adults, the atypical pneumonia syndrome is the most common clinical presentation; Mycoplasma pneumoniae is the most frequently identified causative agent. Other less common agents include Legionella pneumophila, influenza viruses, adenoviruses, and Chlamydia. More than half a million adults are hospitalized each year with pneumonia. Persons older than 65 years of age have the highest rate of pneumonia admissions, 11.5 per 1,000 population. Pneumonia ranks as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. The pathogens responsible for community-acquired pneumonias are changing. Forty years ago, Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for the majority of infections. Today, a broad array of community-acquired pathogens have been implicated as etiologic agents including Legionella species, gram-negative bacilli, Hemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus and nonbacterial pathogens. Given the diversity of pathogenic agents, it has become imperative for clinicians to establish a specific etiologic diagnosis before initiating therapy or to consider the diagnostic possibilities and treat with antimicrobial agents that are effective against the most likely pathogens.

This article was published in ResearchGate and referenced in Journal of Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine

Relevant Expert PPTs

Relevant Speaker PPTs

  • Ping Gu
    Myeloid-specific deletion of SIRT1 impairs obesity and ageing-associated endothelial dysfunction
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • George Rawitscher
    Revival of the phase-amplitude description of a quantum-mechanical wave function
    PDF Version
  • Tina Cloney
    Behavioral change strategies conducive to reducing rates of disease and disability and promoting rehabilitation and daily functioning
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Khalid Bashar
    Predictive parameters of arterio-venous fistula functional maturation in a population of patients with end-stage renal disease
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Cormac G M Gahan
    Bacterial bile salt hydrolase in the regulation of host lipid metabolism and circadian rhythm: A role in probiotic function?
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Tjale Mahopo
    Impact of infant feeding practices on gut function in Dzimauli community, South Africa
    PDF Version
  • Keiko Unno
    Prevention of cognitive dysfunction and amyloid beta accumulation by the ingestion of green soybean extract in aged mice
    PDF Version
  • Chia-chi Liu
    Oxidative inhibition of erythrocyte sodium pump: A functionally relevant circulating marker of oxidative stress
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Alina Borowska
    Postoperative cognitive dysfunctions after cardiac operations
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Elena Rampanelli
    Renal dysfunction and metabolic syndrome: the chicken or the egg?
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Maha M Saber
    Honey as nutrient and functional food
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Hasan Zaki
    The inflammasome: Critical roles in intestinal homeostasis
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Vladimir Sulimov
    “Vladimir Sulimov-Dimonta-Ltd-and-Lomonosov-Moscow-State-University-Russia-Protein-ligand-low-energy-minima-pose-analysis-Docking-target-functions-evaluation-with-the-FLM-program”
    PPT Version | PDF Version
  • Hitoshi Kunoh
    Novel functional materials created by mimicking Fe-oxidizing bacterium involved formation processes of iron oxides complex
    PPT Version | PDF Version

Recommended Conferences

Peer Reviewed Journals
 
Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700 + peer reviewed, Open Access Journals
International Conferences 2017-18
 
Meet Inspiring Speakers and Experts at our 3000+ Global Annual Meetings

Contact Us

Agri, Food, Aqua and Veterinary Science Journals

Dr. Krish

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Clinical and Biochemistry Journals

Datta A

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9037

Business & Management Journals

Ronald

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Journals

Gabriel Shaw

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9040

Earth & Environmental Sciences

Katie Wilson

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

Engineering Journals

James Franklin

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9042

General Science and Health care Journals

Andrea Jason

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9043

Genetics and Molecular Biology Journals

Anna Melissa

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9006

Immunology & Microbiology Journals

David Gorantl

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9014

Informatics Journals

Stephanie Skinner

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Material Sciences Journals

Rachle Green

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9039

Mathematics and Physics Journals

Jim Willison

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

Medical Journals

Nimmi Anna

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9038

Neuroscience & Psychology Journals

Nathan T

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9041

Pharmaceutical Sciences Journals

John Behannon

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001Extn: 9007

Social & Political Science Journals

Steve Harry

[email protected]

1-702-714-7001 Extn: 9042

 
© 2008-2017 OMICS International - Open Access Publisher. Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version
adwords