Author(s): Attanoos R, Williams GT
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Abstract This review considers the pathologic features of epithelial tumors and tumor-like lesions of the duodenum and highlights potential pitfalls in their histological diagnosis. The tumor-like lesions include Brunner's gland hamartoma, myoepithelial hamartoma, and the mucosal polyps of the Peutz-Jeghers and juvenile polyposis syndromes. The true neoplasms are of two broad groups. The first includes duodenal adenomas and carcinomas, whose microscopic features, histogenetic relationships, and clinical significance closely mimic their commoner counterparts in the large intestine and which, when multiple, are closely associated with familial adenomatous polyposis coli. The second includes a number of uncommon endocrine cell tumors showing a great diversity of histological pattern, and which may be single or multiple. Among these are typical argyrophil carcinoids, which may secrete gastrin to give rise to the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and which may occur as part of the inherited multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN-1); glandular somatostatin-rich, apparently nonargyrophil, carcinoids containing psammoma bodies that can be easily confused histologically with adenocarcinomas, and which are linked to type 1 neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease) and phaeochromocytoma; and the gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare tumor composed of neural elements, ganglion cells, and endocrine cells. Accurate histologic diagnosis of mucosal tumors and tumor-like lesions of the duodenum is important not only for immediate patient management, but also because it may provide the first clue to the existence of an inherited tumor syndrome, with its broader implications for the patient's family and potentially important consequences for genetic counseling.
This article was published in Semin Diagn Pathol
and referenced in Journal of Gastrointestinal & Digestive System