Author(s): Adamson AL, Kenney S
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Abstract Although the immediate-early proteins of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are known to modify promyelocytic leukemia (PML) (ND10) bodies in the nucleus of the host cell, it has been unclear whether lytic infection with gamma herpesviruses induces a similar effect. The PML protein is induced by interferon, involved in major histocompatibility complex class I presentation, and necessary for certain types of apoptosis. Therefore, it is likely that PML bodies function in an antiviral capacity. SUMO-1 modification of PML is known to be required for the formation of PML bodies. To examine whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication interferes with PML bodies, we expressed the EBV immediate-early genes BZLF1 (Z) and BRLF1 (R) in EBV-positive cell lines and examined PML localization. Both Z and R expression resulted in PML dispersion in EBV-positive cells. Z but not R expression is sufficient to disrupt PML bodies in EBV-negative cell lines. We show that dispersion of PML bodies by Z requires a portion of the transcriptional activation domain of Z but not the DNA-binding function. As was previously reported for the HSV-1 ICP0 and CMV IE1 proteins, Z reduces the amount of SUMO-1-modified PML. We also found that Z itself is SUMO-1 modified (through amino acid 12) and that Z competes with PML for limiting amounts of SUMO-1. These results suggest that disruption of PML bodies is important for efficient lytic replication of EBV. Furthermore, Z may potentially alter the function of a variety of cellular proteins by inhibiting SUMO-1 modification.
This article was published in J Virol
and referenced in Medicinal Chemistry