Author(s): JV CalderonSalinas, EG MunozReyes, Fernando GuerreroRomero, M A QuintanarEscorza
It has been suggested that oxidative stress may participate in the progression of diabetes and its complications. Long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) include retinopathy, atherosclerosis, shortened life span of erythrocytes, nephropathy, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Oxidative damage has been associated with erythrocyte apoptosis induction in other pathological conditions. Our aim was to study the presence of eryptosis and its possible relationship with oxidative damage in patients with T2DM without CKD (T2DM/CKD(-)) and in patients with T2DM and CKD (T2DM/CKD(+)).Oxidative damage of lipids erythrocytes were increased in diabetic patients. The highest lipoperoxidation was found in T2DM/CKD(+). Likewise, the lower plasma total antioxidant capacity, GSH/GSSG ratio, and GSH in erythrocytes were found in T2DM/CKD(+) patients. A negative correlation was found between plasma total antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage. Phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization was measured in erythrocytes to evaluate eryptosis. Annexin binding in erythrocytes of T2DM/CKD(+) patients was higher than in healthy subjects and T2DM/CKD(-) patients. A positive correlation between lipoperoxidation and PS externalization in erythrocytes was found. This work showed that the erythrocytes of diabetic patients have increased oxidative damage, a reduction of antioxidant systems and more erythrocyte PS externalization. The duration of diabetes and the presence of CKD increase both oxidative damage and eryptosis. It is possible that a longer time of evolution induces an increase in erythrocyte oxidative damage and the consumption of blood antioxidant systems, adding to the osmotic stress in CKD and so contributes to an increase in PS externalization in diabetic patients.