Author(s): Lee ST, Chu K, Sinn DI, Jung KH, Kim EH,
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Abstract Erythropoietin (EPO), a pleiotropic cytokine involved in erythropoiesis, is tissue-protective in ischemic, traumatic, toxic and inflammatory injuries. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPO in experimental intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Two hours after inducing ICH via the stereotaxic infusion of collagenase, recombinant human EPO (500 or 5000 IU/kg, ICH + EPO group) or PBS (ICH + vehicle group) was administered intraperitoneally, then once daily afterwards for 1 or 3 days. ICH + EPO showed the better functional recovery in both rotarod and modified limb placing tests. The brain water content was decreased in ICH + EPO dose-dependently, as compared with ICH + vehicle. The effect of EPO on the brain water content was inhibited by N(omega)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg). Mean hemorrhage volume was also decreased in ICH + EPO. EPO reduced the numbers of TUNEL +, myeloperoxidase + or OX-42 + cells in the perihematomal area. In addition, EPO reduced the mRNA level of TNF-alpha, Fas and Fas-L, as well as the activities of caspase-8, 9 and 3. EPO treatment showed up-regulations of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p-eNOS, pAkt, pSTAT3 and pERK levels. These data suggests that EPO treatment in ICH induces better functional recovery with reducing perihematomal inflammation and apoptosis, coupled with activations of eNOS, STAT3 and ERK.
This article was published in J Neurochem
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology