Author(s): MartnGalln P, Carrascosa A, Gussinye M, Domnguez C
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Abstract Increased oxidative stress has emerged as a potential mechanism implicated in the pathogenesis, progression and cell dysfunction associated with many diseases including diabetes. In routine clinical practice, the estimation of the degree of oxidative damage and antioxidant status, even in paediatric patients, by appropriate techniques appears to be of interest. The aim of this study was to reliably identify patients with increased oxidant stress and/or reduced antioxidant defence mechanisms with a small blood sample and verify the applicability to the study of diabetic children (DC) at clinical onset of the disease. In 1-ml blood samples from 30 DC and 34 controls, techniques for accurately measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in plasma and erythrocytes (using HPLC analysis with fluorometric detection), total radical antioxidant potential (TRAP) and blood plasma oxidizability were adapted and validated. Plasma alpha-tocopherol (HPLC), uric acid and sulfhydryl (SH) groups were also determined. At clinical onset of diabetes a significant reduction in plasma TRAP values (P<0.01) was observed in DC compared with controls. Similarly, a significant fall in individual antioxidant levels (alpha-tocopherol/total lipids, uric acid and protein SH) was noted in plasma of DC. Highly significant increases were found in both plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels in DC (p-MDA:1.7+/-0.2 microM; er-MDA: 7.2+/-0.7 nmol/g Hb) compared with controls (p-MDA:0.86+/-0.09 microM; P<0.0003; er-MDA:3.8+/-0.2 nmol/g Hb, P<0.0001). Plasma MDA and triglyceride levels correlated directly only in DC (P<0.001). Whole plasma oxidizability was significantly higher in DC than in controls (P<0.0001) and this parameter correlated significantly with plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.0001). The micromethods adapted and applied to the simultaneous detection of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidant status permit accurate and reliable assessment of the oxidative stress process in small plasma samples. Our results clearly show systemic peroxidative damage associated with insufficient defence mechanisms against ROS to be already present at clinical onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents.
This article was published in Free Radic Res
and referenced in Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism