Author(s): Ahmed AT, Go AS, Warton EM, Parker MM, Karter AJ
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Abstract To examine ethnic differences in hemoglobin testing practices and to test the hypothesis that ethnicity is an independent predictor of anemia among patients with diabetes mellitus. We conducted a panel study to assess the rate of hemoglobin testing during 1999-2001 and the period prevalence and incidence of anemia among 79,985 adults with diabetes mellitus receiving care within Kaiser Permanente of Northern California. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <13.0 g/dL in men or < 12.0 g/dL in women. Overall, 82.1\% of the cohort was tested for anemia at least once during the 3-year study period. Mixed ethnicity patients were most likely to be tested, followed by whites, blacks, Latinos, and Asians (P < 0.0001). Fifteen percent of the cohort had prevalent anemia at baseline, and an additional 22\% of those tested developed anemia during the study period. Anemia was more prevalent among blacks and mixed ethnicity persons compared with other racial/ethnic groups. Anemia was also more prevalent among those >/=70 years of age or with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In multivariable models, blacks had higher and Asians had lower odds of prevalent anemia and hazard ratios of incident anemia compared with whites. Within a large, diverse cohort with diabetes, ethnicity was predictive of anemia, even after adjustment for age, level of kidney function, and other potential confounders. Blacks with diabetes are at increased risk of anemia relative to whites. These differences may account for some of the observed ethnic disparities in diabetes complications. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This article was published in Am J Hematol
and referenced in Journal of Molecular Histology & Medical Physiology