Author(s): OBrien D, Boyd D, Madigan S, Murphy S
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Abstract Polymethlylmethacrylate (PMMA) is the most frequently used cement for percutaneous vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. To aid visualisation during surgery cements are doped with radiopacifying agents such as Barium sulphate (Ba(2)SO(4)) or Zirconium Dioxide (ZiO(2)). Mounting research suggests that these agents may impair the biocompatibility of the cements. However, incorporating an alternative radiopacifier agent with excellent biocompatibility would be a significant step forward. Bioactive radiopaque glasses incorporating elements such as strontium (Sr) and zinc (Zn), known to have beneficial and therapeutic effects on bone, are of great interest in this respect. In this study, the Ba(2)SO(4) of the commercially available Spineplex was incrementally replaced with a radiopaque therapeutic glass composition. The resulting effects on cement setting time, peak isotherm, ultimate compressive strength, Young's modulus (up to 30 days cement maturation) and radiopacity were evaluated. The substitution lead to an increase in cement setting time from 13.1 mins for Spineplex to 16.6-18.3 mins for the glass substituted cements. The peak exotherm during curing was reduced from 74 degrees C for Spineplex to a minimum of 51 degrees C for the fully substituted cement, indicating that reduced thermal necrosis in the in vivo setting is likely with these materials. Ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus of each formulation showed no significant deterioration due to the substitution. Finally, the radiopacity of the substituted cements were reduced by up to a maximum of 18\% in comparison to the control. However, the experimental formulations still maintained radiopacity equivalent to several millimetres of aluminium. As such the substituted cements had substantial equivalence to the Spineplex control. In order to assess the clinical relevance of these findings further investigation is warranted.
This article was published in J Mater Sci Mater Med
and referenced in Journal of Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology