Author(s): Louro M, Ferreira M, Pvoa P
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Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pressure ulcers (PU) constitute an important health problem in particular in the intensive care unit (ICU). The objective of the study was to identify the number, degree and total score of PU on admission, ICU stay and discharge as well as to recognize factors influencing the appearance or development of PU and to identify the number of healed PU, thus so the incidence and prevalence. METHODS: All patients admitted > 24 hrs were prospectively included during one year. Seventy patients were excluded for insufficient data. The prevention protocol (Norton scale; positioning according the risk grade) and therapeutic protocol (hydrocolloid dressings; hydrogel dressings if tissue necrosis and/or devitalized and alginate dressings if ulcer bleeds) was applied to all patients. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty five patients were studied. Eighteen patients were admitted already with PU. During ICU stay, 40 patients developed a total of 125 PU. The prevalence of PU was 37.41\% and incidence was 25.8\%. The development of new PU occurred on average by the 7th day. Patients with PU presented 2.6 PU on the average. Seventy nine percent of the patients admitted in the ICU remained stable or improved. Patients admitted with PU had a SAPS 2 significantly higher than those without, 54 ± 8.7 and 44 ± 17, respectively (p = 0.015). At the day of discharge, patients classified as high risk had significantly more PU (p = 0.039). Non-survivors had significantly more PU than survivors (p < 0.001). Patients with longer ICU stay had more PU (p < 0.001) CONCLUSIONS: In our patient population we found 37.41\% prevalence and 25.8\% incidence of PU. The present prevention protocol of PU was effective in 79\% of the patients; severely ill patients developed PU more frequently.
This article was published in Rev Bras Ter Intensiva
and referenced in Journal of Community Medicine & Health Education