Author(s): Hanley TR Jr, Breslin WJ, Quast JF, Carney EW
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Abstract Spinosad, an insecticide derived from a naturally occurring bacterium via fermentation, represents a new class of insecticides acting by a novel mode of action. A dietary study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats in which groups of 30 rats/sex/dosage level were given diets that provided 0, 3, 10, or 100 mg spinosad/kg body weight/day, 7 days/week, for 2 successive generations. Following 10 weeks of dietary exposure, the P1 generation was mated twice to produce F1a and F1b litters. After weaning, groups of 30 rats/sex/dosage level were selected from the F1a litters, given diets containing spinosad for 12 weeks, and mated to produce the F2 generation. Dietary administration of spinosad to rats at a dosage of 100 mg/kg/day over 2 generations produced parental toxicity and effects on the offspring. Among adult males, body weights and weight gains were decreased 2-9\% relative to controls, with P1 males more affected than P2. Absolute and relative liver, kidney, heart, spleen, and thyroid weights were increased by from 12\% to as much as 240\% of control values. Histologic changes consistent with cationic amphiphilic compounds were noted in the kidneys, lungs, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and thyroid of P1 and P2 males and females. In females given 100 mg/kg/day, though premating body weights were not affected, weight gains during the F1a and F1b gestation periods were depressed 15-16\%. Increased incidences of dystocia, and vaginal bleeding and mortality occurred during parturition and lactation at 100 mg/kg/day. Effects on the offspring (decreased litter size and survival through day 4 of lactation) were limited to the high-dosage group. Signs indicative of poor maternal care noted in the pups (stomachs void of milk, cold, thin, etc.) were observed at 100 mg/kg/day. Early postnatal effects on the offspring were considered likely secondary to the effects in maternal animals around the time of parturition. At 100 mg/kg/day, weight gain in pups was depressed throughout lactation, with statistically significantly decreased weights noted toward the latter half of the lactation period. There were no treatment-related effects on adults or their offspring at 3 or 10 mg/kg/day in either generation. Based on these results, spinosad is not considered a selective reproductive toxicant, (i.e., no effects on reproductive parameters were noted below a level that produced toxicity in the adults) and the no observed effect level (NOEL) for both parental and reproductive/perinatal toxicity was 10 mg/kg/day.
This article was published in Toxicol Sci
and referenced in Journal of Veterinary Science & Technology