Author(s): Ruff CT
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K antagonists have been the standard oral antithrombotic used for more than a half century for prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Their limitations include multiple food and drug interactions and need for frequent monitoring and dose adjustments. Edoxaban is a selective and direct factor Xa inhibitor that may provide effective, safe, and more convenient anticoagulation.
STUDY DESIGN: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multinational, noninferiority design megatrial comparing 2 exposure strategies of edoxaban to warfarin. Approximately 20,500 subjects will be randomized to edoxaban high exposure (60 mg daily, adjusted for drug clearance), edoxaban low exposure (30 mg daily, adjusted for drug clearance), or warfarin titrated to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0. The edoxaban strategies provide for dynamic dose reductions in subjects with anticipated increased drug exposure. Blinded treatment is maintained through the use of sham international normalized ratios in patients receiving edoxaban. Eligibility criteria include electrical documentation of atrial fibrillation ≤12 months and a CHADS(2) score ≥2. Randomization is stratified by CHADS(2) score and anticipated drug exposure. The primary objective is to determine whether edoxaban is noninferior to warfarin for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism. The primary safety end point is modified International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis major bleeding. Recruitment began in November 2008. The expected median follow-up is 24 months. CONCLUSIONS: ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 is a phase 3 comparison of the novel oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban to warfarin for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation.