Author(s): Agarwala SS, Case S
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Abstract Historically, there have been few treatment options for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) besides immunotherapy with interleukin-2 and interferon (IFN)-alpha. Targeted therapies have improved clinical outcomes over the past several years. These include the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib and sorafenib, which inhibit angiogenic signaling in endothelial cells and vascular pericytes predominantly through VEGFR and platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta. Also included is the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab used in combination with IFN-alpha. These agents mediate their antitumor effects by interfering with the VEGF signaling pathway, thereby inhibiting angiogenesis and causing tumor shrinkage. However, ultimately, most patients develop resistance and experience disease progression during VEGF/VEGFR-targeted therapy, and until the recent approval of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus (RAD001), there were no agents available with proven activity in this setting. This review describes the clinical development of everolimus in advanced RCC and the rationale for the use of mTOR inhibitors after failure of VEGF/VEGFR inhibitors.
This article was published in Oncologist
and referenced in Journal of Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy