Author(s): Vyakarnam A, Dagher SF, Wang JL, Patterson RJ
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Abstract Galectins are a family of beta-galactoside-binding proteins that contain characteristic amino acid sequences in the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the polypeptide. The polypeptide of galectin-1 contains a single domain, the CRD. The polypeptide of galectin-3 has two domains, a carboxyl-terminal CRD fused onto a proline- and glycine-rich amino-terminal domain. In previous studies, we showed that galectin-3 is a required factor in the splicing of nuclear pre-mRNA, assayed in a cell-free system. We now document that (i) nuclear extracts derived from HeLa cells contain both galectins-1 and -3; (ii) depletion of both galectins from the nuclear extract either by lactose affinity adsorption or by double-antibody adsorption results in a concomitant loss of splicing activity; (iii) depletion of either galectin-1 or galectin-3 by specific antibody adsorption fails to remove all of the splicing activity, and the residual splicing activity is still saccharide inhibitable; (iv) either galectin-1 or galectin-3 alone is sufficient to reconstitute, at least partially, the splicing activity of nuclear extracts depleted of both galectins; and (v) although the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 (or galectin-1) is sufficient to restore splicing activity to a galectin-depleted nuclear extract, the concentration required for reconstitution is greater than that of the full-length galectin-3 polypeptide. Consistent with these functional results, double-immunofluorescence analyses show that within the nucleus, galectin-3 colocalizes with the speckled structures observed with splicing factor SC35. Similar results are also obtained with galectin-1, although in this case, there are areas of galectin-1 devoid of SC35 and vice versa. Thus, nuclear galectins exhibit functional redundancy in their splicing activity and partition, at least partially, in the nucleoplasm with another known splicing factor.
This article was published in Mol Cell Biol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology