Author(s): Winn LM, Wells PG
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Abstract A mouse embryo culture model was used to determine whether embryonic prostaglandin H synthase (PHS)-catalyzed bioactivation and resultant oxidative damage to embryonic protein and DNA may constitute a molecular mechanism mediating phenytoin and benzo[a]pyrene teratogenesis. Embryos were explanted from CD-1 mouse dams on gestational day 9.5 (vaginal plug = day 1) and incubated for either 4 h (biochemistry) or 24 h (embryotoxicity) at 37 degrees C in medium containing either phenytoin (20 micrograms/ml, 80 microM), benzo[a]pyrene (10 microM), or their respective vehicles. As previously observed with phenytoin (Mol. Pharmacol.48: 112-120, 1995), embryos incubated with benzo[a]pyrene showed decreases in anterior neuropore closure, turning, yolk sac diameter, and somite development (p < .05). Addition of the antioxidative enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) substantially enhanced embryonic SOD activity (p < .05) and completely inhibited benzo[a]pyrene embryotoxicity (p < .05). Substantial PHS was detected in day 9.5 embryos using SDS/PAGE, anti-PHS antibody, and alkaline phosphatase-conjugated donkey anti-goat IgG. Embryonic protein oxidation was detected by the reaction of 0.5 mM 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with protein carbonyl groups. This method was first validated by using a known hydroxyl radical-generating system consisting of vanadyl sulfate and H2O2, with bovine serum albumin or embryonic protein as the target. Embryonic proteins were characterized by SDS/PAGE, anti-dinitrophenyl antisera, and peroxidase-labeled goat anti-donkey IgG. Using enhanced chemiluminescence, the number and content of oxidized protein bands detected between 25 and 200 kDa were substantially increased by both phenytoin and benzo[a]pyrene. Addition of the reducing agent dithiothreitol, or SOD or catalase, decreased protein oxidation in phenytoin-exposed embryos. Both phenytoin (Mol. Pharmacol.48: 112-120, 1995) and benzo[a]pyrene enhanced embryonic DNA oxidation, determined by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (p < .05). Phenytoin also enhanced the oxidation of embryonic glutathione (GSH) to its GSSG disulfide, as measured by HPLC (p < .05). These results provide direct evidence that, in the absence of maternal or placental processes, embryonic PHS-catalyzed bioactivation and reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidation of embryonic protein, thiols, and DNA may constitute a molecular mechanism mediating phenytoin and benzo[a]pyrene teratogenesis.
This article was published in Free Radic Biol Med
and referenced in Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy