Author(s): Mathew AG, Liamthong S, Lin J, Hong Y
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Abstract A study was conducted to determine if homologous integrons occurred in Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. within livestock production sites in the United States and Thailand suggesting transfer of genetic resistance elements between those organisms. Fecal samples were collected via rectal swabs from live swine in the United States and Thailand, and cloacal swabs from live chickens in Thailand, and killed chickens at a U.S. abattoir. Isolates were derived only from farms harboring both Salmonella and E. coli, resulting in the inclusion of 571 E. coli and 98 Salmonella isolates derived from both livestock species in the United States and Thailand. Class 1 integron variable regions were detected using polymerase chain reaction targeting 5' and 3' conserved sequences. When integron-positive E. coli and Salmonella from the same farm had identical amplicon patterns, polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced to determine homology. Nine integron amplicons, with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 kb, were observed in bacterial isolates, and we found a single swine farm in Thailand from which identical amplicons were observed in both E. coli and Salmonella. Sequence analysis revealed a 1.0 kb amplicon common to both bacteria contained an aadA1 gene cassette encoding aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase, conferring resistance to streptomycin and spectinomycin. A 2.0 kb amplicon was also found in both types of bacteria from that farm, containing an aadA5 gene encoding aminoglycoside 3'-adenyltransferase, an additional reading frame, orfD, with unknown function, and a dfrA17 gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase, conferring resistance to trimethoprim. Further analyses determined the amplicons were contained on plasmid DNA in both E. coli and Salmonella, and a plasmid of similar size was identified in both species and was found to harbor the class 1 integron. Our results indicate that while in most cases, integrons of coexisting E. coli and Salmonella differed, identical integron amplicons were found in those species from a single swine farm in Thailand, suggesting horizontal transfer between these two organisms may have occurred on-farm.
This article was published in Foodborne Pathog Dis
and referenced in Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics