Author(s): Lafitte D, Heck AJ, Hill TJ, Jumel K, Harding SE, , Lafitte D, Heck AJ, Hill TJ, Jumel K, Harding SE,
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Abstract Calcium-binding proteins, such as S-100, dimerize readily, and this phenomenon plays an important role in their regulation of target enzymes [Krebs, J., Quadroni, M. & Van Eldik, L.J. (1995) Nat. Struct. Biol. 2, 711-714; Kilby, P.M., Van Eldik, L.J. & Roberts, G. C. (1996) Structure 4, 1041-1052]. We have investigated by Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) MS the conformational states of the calcium-binding protein calmodulin, and present clear evidence for a calmodulin dimer formed as a result of noncovalent interactions between folded monomers. Ultra-high-resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectra for calmodulin, obtained with a 9.4 T FTICR mass spectrometer, are presented. With the use of denaturing solutions (1 : 1 acetonitrile/water + 1\% formic acid), relatively high charge states (20 < z < 10) of monomeric calmodulin ions were detected, whereas when calmodulin was electrosprayed from buffer, monomers ions with only 5-10 charges were detected. CD measurements for calmodulin in buffered solution revealed that its alpha-helical content was significantly higher than that for calmodulin in acetonitrile/water solutions, consistent with a proposition that changes in charge state distributions observed in the MS experiments reflect differing states of calmodulin folding. Under buffered conditions, noncovalently bound calmodulin dimers were observed by ESI FTICR MS. Analytical ultracentrifugation experiments carried out in the same solution conditions as those used in the MS experiments were consistent with the proposed calmodulin dimer-monomer equilibrium. The ultra-high mass resolution achieved with the 9.4 T FTICR mass spectrometer allowed unequivocal identification of the noncovalent, as opposed to covalent, character of the calmodulin dimer.
This article was published in Eur J Biochem
and referenced in Biosensors Journal