alexa Evidence that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaric acid promotes lipid and protein oxidative damage and reduces the nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses in rat cerebral cortex.
Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Bioinformatics & Systems Biology

Metabolomics:Open Access

Author(s): Leipnitz G, Seminotti B, Haubrich J, Dalcin MB, Dalcin KB,

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Abstract In the present work we investigated the in vitro effect of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutarate (HMG) that accumulates in 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency (HMGLD) on important parameters of oxidative stress in rat cerebral cortex. It was observed that HMG induced lipid peroxidation by significantly increasing chemiluminescence and levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS). This effect was prevented by the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and superoxide dismutase plus catalase, suggesting that free radicals were involved in the lipid oxidative damage. On the other hand, HMG did not change TBA-RS levels in intact or disrupted mitochondrial preparations, indicating that generation of oxidants by this organic acid was dependent on cytosolic mechanisms. HMG also induced protein oxidative damage in cortical supernatants, which was reflected by increased carbonyl content and sulfhydryl oxidation. Furthermore, HMG significantly reduced the nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses total-radical trapping antioxidant potential, total antioxidant reactivity, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in rat cerebral cortex. HMG-induced GSH reduction was totally blocked by melatonin pretreatment. We also verified that the decrease of GSH levels provoked by HMG in cortical supernatants was not due to a direct oxidative effect of this organic acid, because exposition of commercial GSH and purified membrane protein-bound thiol groups to HMG in the absence of cortical supernatants did not decrease the reduced sulfhydryl groups. Finally, the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes were not altered by HMG exposure. Our data indicate that oxidative stress elicited in vitro by HMG may possibly contribute at least in part to the pathophysiology of the brain injury in HMGLD. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. This article was published in J Neurosci Res and referenced in Metabolomics:Open Access

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