alexa Evidence that ultrafine titanium dioxide induces micronuclei and apoptosis in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts.
Environmental Sciences

Environmental Sciences

Journal of Pollution Effects & Control

Author(s): Rahman Q, Lohani M, Dopp E, Pemsel H, Jonas L,

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Abstract Inhaled ultrafine titanium dioxide (UF-TiO2) particles cause pronounced pulmonary inflammation, in contrast to fine TiO2. Previous studies provide evidence for the production of reactive oxygen species by alveolar macrophages, after overloading with UF-TiO2 particles and cytotoxicity of UF-TiO2 in rat lung alveolar macrophages. UF-TiO2 also causes pulmonary fibrosis and lung tumors in rats. UF-TiO2 particles are photogenotoxic, but in general, information on the genotoxicity of UF-TiO2 is still limited. We studied the potential of UF-TiO2 (particle size less than or equal to 20 nm) and fine TiO2 (particle size > 200 nm) to induce chromosomal changes, which can be monitored by the formation of micronuclei (MN) in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. We also analyzed UF-TiO2-treated cells for apoptosis induction. The MN assay revealed a significant increase in MN induction (p less than or equal to 0.05) in SHE cells after treatment with UF-TiO2 (1.0 micro g/cm2) for 12 hr (mean, 24.5 MN/1,000 cells), 24 hr (mean, 31.13 MN/1,000 cells), 48 hr (mean, 30.8 MN/1,000 cells), 66 hr (mean, 31.2 MN/1,000 cells), and 72 hr (mean, 31.3 MN/1,000 cells). Bisbenzimide staining of the fixed cells revealed typical apoptotic structures (apoptotic bodies), and the apoptosis-specific "DNA ladder pattern" resulting from internucleosomal cleavage was identified by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy of the exposed cells revealed the typical chromatin compaction of apoptosis.
This article was published in Environ Health Perspect and referenced in Journal of Pollution Effects & Control

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