Author(s): Wasserman JK, Zhu X, Schlichter LC
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Abstract There are no effective treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Although inflammation is a potential therapeutic target, there is a dearth of information about time-dependent and cell-specific changes in the expression of inflammation-related genes. Using the collagenase-induced ICH model in rats and real-time quantitative RT-PCR we monitored mRNA levels of markers of glial activation, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, enzymes responsible for cytokine activation and several matrix metalloproteases at 6 h and 1, 3 and 7 days after ICH onset. For the most highly up-regulated genes, immunohistochemistry was then used to identify cell-specific protein expression. Finally, minocycline, a drug widely reported to reduce damage in several models of brain injury, was used to test the hypothesis that it can reduce up-regulation of inflammation-related genes when administered using a clinically relevant dosing regime: intraperitoneal injection beginning 6 h after ICH. Our results show a complex inflammatory response, with different brain cell types producing several pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules for at least 7 days after ICH onset. Included is the first demonstration that astrocytes are an important source of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and MMP-12. Importantly, our results demonstrate that while delayed minocycline treatment effectively reduces early up-regulation of TNFalpha and MMP-12, its efficacy is lost when treatment is extended for up to a week, and it does not reduce several other genes associated with microglia activation. These results suggest caution in extrapolating to ICH the promising results of minocycline treatment in other models of brain injury.
This article was published in Brain Res
and referenced in Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy