Author(s): DomnguezDomnguez O, Alda F, de Len GP, GarcaGaritagoitia JL, Doadrio I
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Tectonic, volcanic and climatic events that produce changes in hydrographic systems are the main causes of diversification and speciation of freshwater fishes. Elucidate the evolutionary history of freshwater fishes permits to infer theories on the biotic and geological evolution of a region, which can further be applied to understand processes of population divergence, speciation and for conservation purposes. The freshwater ecosystems in Central Mexico are characterized by their genesis dynamism, destruction, and compartmentalization induced by intense geologic activity and climatic changes since the early Miocene. The endangered goodeid Zoogoneticus quitzeoensis is widely distributed across Central México, thus making it a good model for phylogeographic analyses in this area. RESULTS: We addressed the phylogeography, evolutionary history and genetic structure of populations of Z. quitzeoensis through a sequential approach, based on both microsatellite and mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences. Most haplotypes were private to particular locations. All the populations analysed showed a remarkable number of haplotypes. The level of gene diversity within populations was Hd = 0.987 (0.714 - 1.00). However, in general the nucleotide diversity was low, pi = 0.0173 (0.0015 - 0.0049). Significant genetic structure was found among populations at the mitochondrial and nuclear level (PhiST = 0.836 and FST = 0.262, respectively). We distinguished two well-defined mitochondrial lineages that were separated ca. 3.3 million years ago (Mya). The time since expansion was ca. 1.5 x 10(6) years ago for Lineage I and ca. 860,000 years ago for Lineage II. Also, genetic patterns of differentiation, between and within lineages, are described at different historical timescales. CONCLUSION: Our mtDNA data indicates that the evolution of the different genetic groups is more related to ancient geological and climatic events (Middle Pliocene, ca. 3.3 Mya) than to the current hydrographic configuration of the basins. In general, mitochondrial and nuclear data supported the same relationships between populations, with the exception of some reduced populations in highly polluted basins (Lower Lerma River), where the effects of genetic drift are suggested by the different analyses at the nuclear and mitochondrial level. Further, our findings are of special interest for the conservation of this endangered species.
This article was published in BMC Evol Biol
and referenced in Journal of Antivirals & Antiretrovirals