Author(s): Mead KI, Zheng Y, Manzotti CN, Perry LC, Liu MK,
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Abstract CTLA-4 is an essential protein in the regulation of T cell responses that interacts with two ligands found on the surface of APCs (CD80 and CD86). CTLA-4 is itself poorly expressed on the T cell surface and is predominantly localized to intracellular compartments. We have studied the mechanisms involved in the delivery of CTLA-4 to the cell surface using a model Chinese hamster ovary cell system and compared this with activated and regulatory human T cells. We have shown that expression of CTLA-4 at the plasma membrane (PM) is controlled by exocytosis of CTLA-4-containing vesicles and followed by rapid endocytosis. Using selective inhibitors and dominant negative mutants, we have shown that exocytosis of CTLA-4 is dependent on the activity of the GTPase ADP ribosylation factor-1 and on phospholipase D activity. CTLA-4 was identified in a perinuclear compartment overlapping with the cis-Golgi marker GM-130 but did not colocalize strongly with lysosomal markers such as CD63 and lysosome-associated membrane protein. In regulatory T cells, activation of phospholipase D was sufficient to trigger release of CTLA-4 to the PM but did not inhibit endocytosis. Taken together, these data suggest that CTLA-4 may be stored in a specialized compartment in regulatory T cells that can be triggered rapidly for deployment to the PM in a phospholipase D- and ADP ribosylation factor-1-dependent manner.
This article was published in J Immunol
and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology