alexa Exogenous proline and trehalose promote recovery of rice seedlings from salt-stress and differentially modulate antioxidant enzymes and expression of related genes.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

Author(s): Nounjan N, Nghia PT, Theerakulpisut P

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Abstract Proline (Pro) and Trehalose (Tre) function as compatible solutes and are upregulated in plants under abiotic stress. They play an osmoprotective role in physiological responses, enabling the plants to better tolerate the adverse effects of abiotic stress. We investigated the effect of exogenous Pro and Tre (10 mM) in seedlings of Thai aromatic rice (cv. KDML105; salt-sensitive) during salt stress and subsequent recovery. Salt stress (S, NaCl) resulted in growth reduction, increase in the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, increase in Pro level and up-regulation of Pro synthesis genes (pyrroline-5-carboxylatesynthetase, P5CS; pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase, P5CR) as well as accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), increased activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POX; ascorbate peroxidase, APX; catalase, CAT) and transcript up-regulation of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Cu/ZnSOD, MnSOD, CytAPX, CatC). Under salt stress, exogenous Pro (PS; Pro+NaCl) reduced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio, further increased endogenous Pro and transcript levels of P5CS and P5CR, but decreased the activity of the four antioxidant enzymes. The transcription of genes encoding several antioxidant enzymes was upregulated. Exogenous Tre (TS; Tre+NaCl) also reduced the Na(+)/K(+) ratio and strongly decreased endogenous Pro. Transcription of P5CS and P5CR was upregulated, the activities of SOD and POX decreased, the activity of APX increased and the transcription of all antioxidant enzyme genes upregulated. Although exogenous osmoprotectants did not alleviate growth inhibition during salt stress, they exhibited a pronounced beneficial effect during recovery period showing higher percentage of growth recovery in PS (162.38\%) and TS (98.43\%) compared with S (3.68\%). During recovery, plants treated with PS showed a much greater reduction in endogenous Pro than NaCl-treated (S) or Tre-treated plants (TS). Increase in CAT activity was most related to significant reduction in H(2)O(2), particularly in the case of PS-treated plants. Advantageous effects of Pro were also associated with increase in APX activity during recovery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. This article was published in J Plant Physiol and referenced in Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access

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