Author(s): Padmanabhan R, Abdulrazzaq YM, Bastaki SM, Shafiullah M, Chandranath SI
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Abstract BACKGROUND: Virtually all antiepileptic drugs (AED) tested so far have been found to be teratogenic. The second generation AED possess a number of therapeutic advantages over the older ones. There are, however, very little data on their effects on embryonic development. A recent report suggests that lamotrigine (LTG) can be teratogenic to human fetuses. With only a few cases of prenatal exposure to LTG in the record, however, it has not been possible to establish a recognizable pattern of malformations in the infants of LTG-treated mothers. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the reproductive toxic effects of LTG . RESULTS: Single (50-200 mg/kg) or multiple doses (25, 50, 75 mg/kg) of LTG were administered by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection (note that the therapeutic administration is oral) to groups of TO mice on gestation day (GD) 7 or 8. Fetuses were collected on GD 18. Maternal toxic effects including a dose-related mortality, a high incidence of abortion, embryo lethality, congenital malformations and intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) were observed in the LTG-treated group. Administration of LTG in multiple low doses resulted in a better maternal survival and increased incidence of embryonic resorption and malformations with increasing dose; IUGR was significant but not dose-dependent. The malformations characteristic of the LTG multiple low dose group fetuses included maxillary-mandibular hypoplasia, exencephaly, cleft palate, median facial cleft, urogenital anomalies and varying degrees of caudal regression. Skeletal malformations and developmental delay of the skeleton were observed both in single and multiple dose groups. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that LTG administered i.p. at high doses can induce intrauterine growth retardation and at low multiple doses causes a dose-dependent increase in embryonic resorption, craniofacial and caudal malformations as well as maternal toxicity in the mouse. Previous studies in other laboratories have used oral route of exposure and concluded that there are no teratogenic effects of LTG at dose levels that are not maternally toxic. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
This article was published in Birth Defects Res B Dev Reprod Toxicol
and referenced in International Journal of Neurorehabilitation