Author(s): Liu E, McDaniel K, Case S, Yu L, Gerhartz B, , Liu E, McDaniel K, Case S, Yu L, Gerhartz B,
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Abstract Class II major histocompatibility molecules confer disease risk in Celiac disease (CD) by presenting gliadin peptides to CD4 T cells in the small intestine. Deamidation of gliadin peptides by tissue transglutaminase creates immunogenic peptides presented by HLA-DQ2 and DQ8 molecules to activate proinflammatory CD4 T cells. Detecting gliadin specific T cell responses from the peripheral blood has been challenging due to low circulating frequencies and heterogeneity in response to gliadin epitopes. We investigated the peripheral T cell responses to alpha and gamma gliadin epitopes in young children with newly diagnosed and untreated CD. Using peptide/MHC recombinant protein constructs, we are able to robustly stimulate CD4 T cell clones previously derived from intestinal biopsies of CD patients. These recombinant proteins and a panel of α- and γ-gliadin peptides were used to assess T cell responses from the peripheral blood. Proliferation assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed more CD4 T cell responses to α-gliadin than γ-gliadin peptides with a single deamidated α-gliadin peptide able to identify 60\% of CD children. We conclude that it is possible to detect T cell responses without a gluten challenge or in vitro stimulus other than antigen, when measuring proliferative responses.
This article was published in Autoimmune Dis
and referenced in Immunome Research