Author(s): Both AF, Westerdahl D, Fruin S, Haryanto B, Marshall JD
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Abstract We measured real-time exposure to PM(2.5), ultrafine PM (particle number) and carbon monoxide (CO) for commuting workers school children, and traffic police, in Jakarta, Indonesia. In total, we measured exposures for 36 individuals covering 93 days. Commuters in private cars experienced mean (st dev) exposures of 22 (9.4) ppm CO, 91 (38) μg/m(3)PM(2.5), and 290 (150)×10(3) particles cm(-3). Mean concentrations were higher in public transport than in private cars for PM(2.5) (difference in means: 22\%) and particle counts (54\%), but not CO, likely reflecting in-vehicle particle losses in private cars owing to air-conditioning. However, average commute times were longer for private car commuters than public transport commuters (in our sample, 24\% longer: 3.0 vs. 2.3 h per day). Commute and traffic-related exposures experienced by Jakarta residents are among the highest in the world, owing to high on-road concentrations and multi-hour commutes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
This article was published in Sci Total Environ
and referenced in Vitamins & Minerals