alexa Expression of antizyme inhibitor 2 in mast cells and role of polyamines as selective regulators of serotonin secretion.


Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology

Author(s): Kanerva K, Lappalainen J, Mkitie LT, Virolainen S, Kovanen PT

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BACKGROUND: Upon IgE-mediated activation, mast cells (MC) exocytose their cytoplasmic secretory granules and release a variety of bioactive substances that trigger inflammatory responses. Polyamines mediate numerous cellular and physiological functions. We report here that MCs express antizyme inhibitor 2 (AZIN2), an activator of polyamine biosynthesis, previously reported to be exclusively expressed in the brain and testis. We have investigated the intracellular localization of AZIN2 both in resting and activated MCs. In addition, we have examined the functional role of polyamines, downstream effectors of AZIN2, as potential regulators of MC activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunostainings show that AZIN2 is expressed in primary and neoplastic human and rodent MCs. We demonstrate that AZIN2 localizes in the Vamp-8 positive, serotonin-containing subset of MC granules, but not in tryptase-containing granules, as revealed by double immunofluorescence stainings. Furthermore, activation of MCs induces rapid upregulation of AZIN2 expression and its redistribution, suggesting a role for AZIN2 in secretory granule exocytosis. We also demonstrate that release of serotonin from activated MCs is polyamine-dependent whereas release of histamine and beta-hexosaminidase is not, indicating a granule subtype-specific function for polyamines. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study reports for the first time the expression of AZIN2 outside the brain and testis, and demonstrates the intracellular localization of endogenous AZIN2 in MCs. The granule subtype-specific expression and its induction after MC activation suggest a role for AZIN2 as a local, in situ regulator of polyamine biosynthesis in association with serotonin-containing granules of MCs. Furthermore, our data indicates a novel function for polyamines as selective regulators of serotonin release from MCs.

This article was published in PLoS One and referenced in Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuroimmunology

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