alexa Extended-release ciprofloxacin (Cipro XR) for treatment of urinary tract infections.
Pharmaceutical Sciences

Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

Author(s): Talan DA, Naber KG, Palou J, Elkharrat D

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Abstract Symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute a major health problem throughout the Western world. In the USA, UTIs are responsible for 7-8 million outpatient visits each year and for over one-third of all hospital-acquired infections. Empiric antimicrobial therapy for UTIs, which are primarily caused by Escherichia coli, is increasingly being complicated by the emergence of resistance to the most widely used agents. Recent studies indicate that the prevalence of E. coli resistance to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), the current first-line therapy for UTIs, exceeds 20\% in many North American regions. Importantly, antibiotic resistance often translates into clinical failure. The use of antibiotics with favourable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profiles and convenient dosing schedules, which effectively increase bacterial eradication and patient compliance, can help to curb the current epidemic of resistance and reduce the rate of clinical failure associated with resistance. Fluoroquinolones have well-established efficacy in the treatment of multiple bacterial infections and, over the years, the rates of resistance to these antibiotics have remained very low. Fluoroquinolones are currently recommended for therapy of uncomplicated UTIs when the local incidence of TMP/SMX resistance is >or=10-20\%, as well as for the treatment of complicated UTIs and acute pyelonephritis. Ciprofloxacin, one of the most widely used fluoroquinolones, has a potent bactericidal effect across the full spectrum of uropathogens, as well as a long and excellent efficacy and safety record in the management of UTI and other infections. A recently developed extended (modified)-release formulation of ciprofloxacin (Cipro XR or Cipro XL) provides higher maximum plasma concentrations with lower inter-patient variability than the conventional, immediate-release, twice-daily formulation. Additionally, therapeutic drug levels with extended-release ciprofloxacin are achieved rapidly and maintained over the course of 24 h, allowing once-daily dosing. Clinical trials in patients with cystitis and those with complicated UTIs or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis indicate that extended-release ciprofloxacin is at least as effective as the immediate-release formulation. These studies have also confirmed good tolerability and safety of extended-release ciprofloxacin, similar to the immediate-release formulation. Therefore, extended-release ciprofloxacin is a convenient, well-tolerated and effective therapy for UTIs that may improve patients' compliance with treatment and thus decrease the risk of treatment failure and the spread of antibiotic resistance. This article was published in Int J Antimicrob Agents and referenced in Journal of Bioequivalence & Bioavailability

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