Author(s): Abraham DJ, Leo AJ
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Abstract The fragment method of calculating partition coefficients (P) has been extended to include the common amino acids (AAs). The results indicate that polar and charged side chains influence the hydrophobicity of atoms in the side chain in a predictable manner. Field effects, as evidenced through polar proximity factors and bond factors, need to be considered for accurate estimation of transfer phenomena. The calculated log P and delta G degree ' values of the 20 AAs agree well with the observed values. Pro calculates to be more hydrophilic than the observed log P. Hydrophobicity scales for peptide side chain residues are compared and evaluated in terms of suitability. Calculated pi values for nonpolar side chain residues agree well with the observed values; calculated values for uncharged polar side chain residues deviate by about 0.6 log units except for Gln and Cys; and polar side chain residues with charged side chains calculate as too hydrophilic. Reasons for the differences are explored. We also suggest that tightly bound water to polar moieties in amino acids and peptides may be transferred into the octanol phase during partitioning experiments. A quantitative methodology is presented which characterizes the thermodynamic partitioning of groups and individual atoms in amino acids and proteins.
This article was published in Proteins
and referenced in Immunochemistry & Immunopathology